Wind Energy


These resources and links are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of wind power and bats.  Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by the Western Bat Working Group.  We encourage the use of peer-reviewed literature, but have provided links to other documents that may be useful in understanding this topic.  Please direct comments or suggestions regarding links to the webmaster.

2009 Bats and Wind Energy Workshop

Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications
Non Peer-Reviewed Documents
Reports by State
Links and Other Sources

Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications:

Baerwald, E.F., G.H. D'Amoour, B.J. Klug, R.M.R. Barclay. 2008. Barotrauma is a significant cause of bat fatalities at wind turbines. Current Biology 18:695-696.

Barclay, R.M.R., E.F. Baerwald, and J.C. Gruver. 2007. Variation in bat and bird fatalities at wind energy facilities: assessing the effects of rotor size and tower height. Canadian Journal of Zoology 85:381-387.

Cryan, P. M. and A. C. Brown. 2007. Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines. Biological Conservation 139: 1-11. Abstract

Johnson, G.D., M.K. Perlik, W.P. Erickson, and M.D. Strickland. 2004. Bat activity, composition, and collision mortality at a large wind plant in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32(4):1278–1288. Abstract

Kunz, T.H., E.B. Arnett, W.P. Erickson, A.R. Hoar, G.D. Johnson, R.P. Larkin, M.D. Strickland, R.W. Thresher, and M.D. Tuttle. 2007. Ecological impacts of wind energy development on bats: questions, research needs, and hypotheses. Front Ecol Environ 5(6): 315–324.

Kunz, T. H., E.B. Arnett, B.M. Cooper, W.P. Erickson, R.P. Larkin, T. Mabee, M.L. Morrison, M.D. Strickland, J.M. Szewczak. 2007. Assessing impacts of wind-energy development on nocturnally active birds and bats: A guidance document. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(8):2449–2486. Abstract

Reynolds, S. 2006. Monitoring the Potential Impact of a Wind Development Site on Bats in the Northeast. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:1219-1227. Abstract

Non-Peer Reviewed Documents:

Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative/Bat Conservation International
-Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative Scientists Release 2004 Final Report

-Arnett, E.B., W.P. Erickson, J. Kerns, and J. Horn.  2005.  Relationships between Bats and Wind Turbines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia: An Assessment of Fatality Search Protocols, Patterns of Fatality, and Behavioral Interactions with Wind Turbines.

-Johnson and Arnett 2004.A bibliogrpaphy of bat interactions with wind turbines.

Association of Fish & Wildlife Agencies
Wind Power Siting, Incentives, and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States (includes a state-by-state summary of guidelines status)

National Research Council
Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects.  National Research Council. (2007)
Purchase book here.
Read online here.

U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory
This website offers a good general reference for technical information on areas of high wind power potential, industry trends, and how the technology works.

American Wind Energy Association
-Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts (2004)

-Wind Energy and Wildlife: Frequently Asked Questions

The Wildlife Society
-Impacts of Wind Energy Facilities on Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat, is now available for purchase through the bookstore at
Read about the report the report here.

Renewable Energy Resources Committee of the American Bar Association
-List of Wind Energy Resources

California Energy Commission
-Weller, T. 2008. Evaluating preconstruction sampling regimes for assessing patterns of bat activity at a wind energy development in Southern California. California Energy Commission, Technology Systems Division, Avian-Energy Mitigation Program. Publication No. CEC-500-2008-037.
-Public Comments for Development of Statewide Guidelines for Reducing Wildlife Impacts
-Various reports

National Research Council Environmental
-Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects (2007 book for purchase)

U.K. Sustainable Development Commission Understanding the Issues.

University of Calgary
-Baerwald, E.F. 2008. Variation in the activity and fatality of migratory bats at wind energy facilities in southern Alberta: Causes and consequences. MSc Thesis. University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. 117 pp.


National Wind Coordinating Committee
-State Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities.  National Conference of State Legislatures (2006).

United States Government Accountability Office
-U.S. GAO Report: Wind Power - Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating, Developing and Protecting Wildlife, GAO-05-906, September 2005.

US Fish and Wildlife Service
-Service Interim Guidance on Avoiding and Minimizing Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines May 13, 2003.
-Wind Turbine Guideline Advisory Committee

-Wind Power Guidelines (2003)

-Statewide Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development (2007). Full guidelines (.pdf; 7.4 MB) Download options and input documents

-Michigan Siting Guidelines for Wind EnergySystems(2007)

South Dakota
-Siting Guidelines for Wind Power Projects in South Dakota (2007)

-Draft Guidelines for the Review and Evaluation of Potential Natural Resources Impacts from Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facilities in Vermont, State of Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, April 2006. (PDF file, 31 pgs, 1.9 MB)
-Clean Energy States Alliance, Model State Guidance Document Governing Avian and Bat Impacts from Wind Facilities, November 07, 2006. (PDF file, 9 pgs, 104 kb)

Canadian Wildlife Service
-Recommended Protocols for Monitoring Impacts of Wind Turbines on Birds Final Report, July 28, 2006 (PDF file, 33 pgs, 232 kb)
-Wind Turbines and Birds - A Background Review for Environmental Assessment, Draft, May 12, 2005. (PDF file, 81 pgs, 336 kb)

Côté, F.  2006.  Impacts des éoliennes sur les chauves-souris. Revue de literature. Direction de la recherche sur la faune.  Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune.(written in French)

Guideline to Assist in the Review of Wind Power Proposals -- Potential Impacts to Birds and Bird Habitats, V1.0 (2007)

Lausen, C., E. Baerwald, J. Gruver, and R. Barclay.  2008.  APPENDIX 5:  Bats and Wind Turbines, Pre-siting and pre-construction survey protocols, 2nd Edn.  Alberta Bat Action Team, University of Calgary, Alberta Fish and Wildlife.

Rodrigues, L., B. Lothar Bach, L. Biraschi, M-J. Dubourg-Savage, J. Goodwin, C. Harbusch, T. Hutson, T. Ivanova, L. Lutsar, K. Parsons.  2006.  Wind Turbines and Bats: guidelines for the planning process and impact assessments, V1.0.

Reports by State:

Erickson, W., G. Johnson, D. Young, D. Strickland, R. Good, M. Bourassa, K. Bay, K. Sernka.  2002.  Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments.  WEST, Inc. Cheyenne, WY.

Johnson, G., W. Erickson, J. White, R. McKinney.  2003.  Avian and Bat Mortality During the First Year of Operation at the Klondike Phase I Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon. WEST, Inc. Cheyenne, WY.

Erickson, W.P., G.D. Johnson, M.D. Strickland, and K. Kronner.
2000.  Avian and Bat Mortality Associated with the Vansycle Wind
Project, Umatilla County, Oregon 1999 Study Year
. WEST, Inc. Cheyenne, WY.

The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats.  Illinois Department of Natural Resources to Governor Rod Blagojevich and the 95th Illinois General Assembly.  (2007)

New York
Young, Jr., D.P., C.S. Nations, V.K. Poulton, J. Kerns, and L. Pavilonis.  2005.  Avian and Bat Studies for the Proposed Dairy Hills Wind Project, Wyoming County, New York. WEST, Inc. Cheyenne, WY.

Jain, A., P. Kerlinger, R. Curry, and L. Slobodnik.  2007.  Annual Report for the Maple Ridge Wind Power Project Postconstruction Bird and Bat Fatality Study – 2006.  Final Report. Curry and Kerlinger, LLC.

West Virginia
Kerns, J. and P. Kerlinger.  2004.  A Study of Bird and Bat Collision Fatalities at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Centre, Tucker County, West Virginia:  Annual Report for 2003. Curry and Kerlinger, LLC.

Johnson, G.D. and M.D. Strickland.  2004.  An Assessment of Potential Collision Mortality of Migrating Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) and Virginia Big-eared Bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) Traversing Between Caves. Supplement to:  Biological Assessment for the Federally Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) and Virginia Big-eared Bat Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) NedPower Mount Storm Wind Project, Grant County, West Virginia.  WEST, Inc. Cheyenne, WY.-

Johnson, G.D., D.P. Young, Jr., W.P. Erickson, C.E. Derby, M. Dale Strickland, and R.E. Good.  2000.  Wildlife Monitoring Studies Seawest Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming 1995-1999.  Final Report.  WEST, Inc. Cheyenne, WY. (7.0 MB)

-Erickson, W., K. Kronner and B.Gritski.  2003.  Nine Canyon Wind Power Project Avian and Bat Monitoring Report September 2002 – August 2003.  WEST, Inc. Cheyenne, WY and Northwest Wildlife Consultants, Inc. Pendleton, Oregon.

Links and Other Sources

-Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee Technical Workshop and FACA Meetings.
-Wind Turbine Guideline Advisory Committee Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative - BWEC

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